Learn More About Synkero



Synkero: Futureproof Aviation

It is our mission to reduce the climate change impact of flying by developing a network of facilities that produce scalable, carbon neutral and clean synthetic SAF: starting in Amsterdam.

But how will we accomplish this? This paper highlights include answers to:

  • Why Synkero and what is needed to create synthetic kerosene. 
  • Why we chose Amsterdam. 
  • How we plan to scale.

What is Synkero?
Synkero is a new start-up focused on developing a commercial facility for synthetic kerosene in Amsterdam. Since 2016, various organizations, from existing industry and established aviation stakeholders to new SAF technology providers and future green hydrogen cluster developments have worked together on this topic. With the initiation of Synkero a new phase has started.
What is the goal of Synkero?
It is our aim to have the synthetic kerosene facility operational in 2027. In the next years we’ll make decisions on the feedstock, technology and will prepare the Front End Engineering & Design phase.
Where will the plant be located?
As the largest petrol port in the world, Amsterdam is a leading player in the oil market. In the transformation towards a low carbon economy, the port of Amsterdam is dedicated to become a key player in sustainable fuels. We are therefore confident to realize this first synthetic kerosene facility in the port of Amsterdam
What is Sustainable Aviation Fuel (or SAF)?
Sustainable aviation fuel is a solution to reduce carbon emissions in aviation in the foreseeable future. SAF is a liquid and clean substitute for fossil jet fuel — rather than being refined from petroleum, SAF is produced from sustainable resources like waste oils and agricultural residues. It can even be produced from carbon captured from the air.

The use of SAF will also contribute to a significant decrease in ultra-fine particles and sulphur emissions. By reducing these emissions, local air quality will be improved in particular in areas with a high density of flight movements, such as airports.

SAF is a so called ‘drop-in’ fuel, which means that after blending the neat SAF with conventional fossil jet fuel, the blended SAF requires no special infrastructure or equipment changes. The blended SAF is fully Jet A/A-1 compliant as it is certified to ASTM D1655, DEFSTAN 91-091 and/or EI-JIG 1530 AFQRJOS ‘check list’, and has the same characteristics and specifications as conventional fossil jet fuel.

Why are SAF’s important?

SAF is currently the best option for CO2 emission reductions for aviation in the short to medium term. The current generation of aircraft needs liquid fuel, and the only logical alternative to fossil kerosene is SAF. The main difference between fossil jet fuel and SAF is the source of carbon: fossil fuels release carbon that was previously stored in reservoirs for a large timespan (hundreds to millions of years). SAF recycles carbon by using CO2 from the atmosphere via the use of biomass. By using a sustainable feedstock, significant CO2 emission reductions can be achieved.

How does it work?

Aviation emissions are growing rapidly, does introduction of SAF go beyond scratching the surface?
Making aviation more sustainable is still in its infancy, but an enormous acceleration is now taking place. Realizing such an energy transition will take time, there is no quick fix. Usage of SAF will generate CO2 reduction within the aviation sector, in contrast to offsetting schemes. SAF provides a significant reduction in CO2 emissions compared to the use of fossil fuel. Sustainable kerosene also contributes to a significant improvement in air quality by reducing (ultrafine) particulate matter and sulphur emissions.
Can you fly on 100% sustainable aviation fuel?
Not yet. Today SAF always requires to be blended with conventional fossil jet fuel to meet the Jet A/A-1 specifications. The maximum blend percentage is prescribed in the ASTM D7566 quality standard and ranges from 10% to 50% depending on the production process. Once the neat (unblended) SAF has been blended with fossil jet fuel, the resulting fuel blend is indistinguishable from conventional fossil jet fuel and meets the same specification as conventional jet fuel: it has become a drop-in fuel. This means no modifications are required in the aircraft systems, engines and the fuel distribution system of airports. There have also been successful test flights on 100% SAF from the HEFA process. We expect approval for the use of 100% SAF in commercial aircraft operations in the future, but that is not currently permitted. Even though you cannot fuel 100% SAF into a plane yet, you can fuel the right amount into the fuel bunker, which equals a 100% reduction.
Is SAF the same as biofuel?

We recommend using the word SAF for one important reason: Sustainability. Biobased jet fuel is not per se sustainable. Imagine jet fuel produced from unsustainable crude palm oil. Very bio, but this type of SAF can even emit more CO2 compared to fossil kerosene. Furthermore, bio jet fuel is only referring to fuels which are produced from biogenic sources, whereas the term SAF also covers alternative fuels for aviation which are not produced from biogenic sources (such as synthetic fuels from recycled fossil carbon or the non-biogenic part of municipal solid waste).